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R. Lawrence Swanson

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A small bridge in Arthur H. Kunz County Park, above, allows residents to take advantage of its many trails. Photo by Rita J. Egan

By R. Lawrence Swanson

We don’t appreciate what we have until somebody else wants it or takes it. Such is the case with Long Island’s open space.

By some accounts, several hundred thousand people have left New York City to seek less populated areas since the outbreak of the COVID virus this past spring. People are relocating along the east coast, Maine to Florida. Most, however, seem to be populating the suburban and more rural parts of Long Island, Connecticut and New Jersey, at least temporarily, but perhaps permanently.

Evidence of this migration can be seen in a number of forms. Housing prices are up considerably as is school enrollment. Long Island government officials hope that businesses will be able to extend the summer season as city residents opt to prolong their summer relocations well into the fall and perhaps permanently. East End towns have seen their garbage generation increase, in one case perhaps 50 percent, all due to the influx of city people.

Suddenly, the importance of social distancing makes Long Island attractive. Our remaining but diminishing open space is valued as people realize large population density still has significant downsides — particularly during a pandemic. Steven Johnson, in his 2006 book, “The Ghost Map,” about the 1854 cholera epidemic in London, points out that intense population density, contributing to drinking water pollution, led to the scourge. With COVID, we are experiencing yet another example of what happens when many people live too close together. Even though there are many advantages to city dwelling such as energy, transportation and health treatment efficiencies, public health can be jeopardized when people are packed together — exponential growth of an infectious disease, for one.

Perhaps now we can understand the benefits of open space and that there are real disadvantages to complete grow out — there are “limits to growth.” Long Island’s premier planner, Dr. Lee Koppelman, postulated in 1964 that Long Island must preserve a minimum of 10 acres per 1,000 people and that 50 percent of inhabited lands needs to be open space if people are to experience a high quality of life. The pandemic has shown that this is indeed correct and now open space is desired by many who don’t have access to it.

According to The Trust for Public Land, Nassau and Suffolk Counties had 15,300 and 120,000 acres (5 percent and 8 percent of total land area) respectively of parks and open space in 2010. However, not all the open space is permanently protected. Suffolk County benefits from its remaining but disappearing agricultural lands.

Long Island, and particularly the residents of Suffolk County, have vigorously supported a number of programs developed over the years to assure that we do have that space for our wellbeing. These programs and laws include farmland preservation, Save Open Space, Community Greenways and the Drinking Water Protection Program (¼ percent sales tax; twice approved by the electorate). Several of these are national models for preserving openness. The Suffolk County Legislature deserves a “Well Done” for recently preventing a temporary borrowing from the ¼ percent sales tax fund. How prescient of the East End towns to pass the Peconic Bay Region Community Preservation Fund, a tax on property sales, creating a revenue stream to preserve historic properties and open space. Public/private partnerships are useful mechanisms to assure protection of green space. And, we are fortunate to have non-governmental organizations like the Peconic Land Trust, The Nature Conservancy and the North Shore Land Alliance preserving lands as well.

But, while a great deal has been done over the last few decades to acquire and protect Long Island from complete build out, we are now falling short of what needs to be done. The COVID pandemic clearly amplifies the desirability of and requirement for open space. More than ever, Nassau and Suffolk Counties and their respective towns, even in tough financial situations, need to aggressively pursue protecting space — more parkland, greenspace and agricultural land, for the health and wellbeing of their citizens. Let’s encourage our elected officials to support the various groundbreaking, space-preservation programs and strategies that are available. We need to implement them aggressively for the long-term sustainability of Long Island.

R. Lawrence Swanson is the associate dean of Stony Brook University School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences and director of its Waste Reduction and Management Institute.

An eroding bluff at Long Beach has been stabilized by constructing a stone seawall at the bluff’s base. The bluff has been terraced to capture material that rolls down from the top and can be planted with vegetation that will help stabilize it. Photo from R. Lawrence Swanson

By R. Lawrence Swanson

Much has been proposed, written, and even implemented, to sustain, armor, adapt, make resilient and conserve the low-lying areas of Long Island’s South Shore since Hurricane Sandy five years ago. That coast is vulnerable to extensive inundation by accelerated sea level rise, the vagaries of storm surges and climate change. Indeed, there are core areas that now flood regularly on the semi-monthly spring tides.

The North Shore of the Island has been largely neglected in the sea level rise/storm surge discussions and planning even though it is equally vulnerable to these processes. The entire geomorphology of the North Shore is subject to change with or without anthropogenic intervention. The challenge is to be able to manage this change so that the environmental services — harbors of refuge, beaches, wetlands, fisheries, aesthetics — provided by the complex, precarious topography of the North Shore remain functionally stable for the region, communities and private interests.

Much of the North Shore is composed of unconsolidated morainal bluffs — many 50 feet or higher — accompanied by down-current cobble barrier beaches. These spits form the small pocket bays and harbors that are the locations of historic settlements. They provide refuge for people and marine ecosystems from the energy of waves and storms. The beautiful pocket bays of Mount Sinai, Port Jefferson, Stony Brook, Northport, Huntington, Cold Spring Harbor and Oyster Bay are now the cultural centers of the North Shore.

The protective spits that form these bays are fed by erosion of the adjacent coastal bluffs. In order for the pocket bays to be maintained, spits must have a sufficient sediment supply to overcome erosional forces and sea level rise, which is currently increasing at about 1.5 feet a century in Long Island Sound, but undoubtedly will accelerate here and globally. The general process is that the bluffs are undercut at their base or toe by waves and extreme tides. This undercutting will become more severe as sea level rises and we experience greater and longer lasting storm surges in the coming years. The bluffs then slump — about 2 feet per year — creating new beach material, some of which is transported by littoral (near-shore) currents to create and sustain the barrier spits. The small beaches at the toe of the bluffs reduce the wave run-up and thus bluff erosion.

“The North Shore of the Island has been largely neglected in the sea level rise/storm surge discussions and planning even though it is equally vulnerable to these processes.”

— R. Lawrence Swanson

Construction of seawalls for which there is increasing demand along the bluff faces hinders these natural processes. Beaches fronting the bluffs will disappear so that waves will be beating directly on the seawalls. Little material will be available for transport to maintain the barrier spits with rising sea level. Those spits will then be subject to overwashing — perhaps exposing the embayments behind continuously to the open waters of the Sound.

What can be done in the way of resiliency to preserve the character of the North Shore and yet also protect individual properties on the Sound — both those on the cliffs and those on the barrier spits? Is hardening the bluffs and beaches at great expense the answer? Do we let nature take its course? Do residents on the barrier beaches have rights to the sediment of eroding cliffs in much the same way that downstream California claims rights to Colorado River water? If hardening of bluffs is allowed, will there be enough sediment at the toe to maintain a beach to reduce wave run-up?

New York State needs to examine this issue and develop guidance that works for all. Current policies are confusing and perhaps conflicting. This is a regional issue that cannot be solved property by property or even on a town-by-town basis.

With the state of development on the North Shore, some form of intervention or adaptation is probably required; nature cannot be left totally unchecked, given the grim climate projections for this coming century. Extensive hardening of the shoreline is equally unpalatable. There are negative downstream effects from almost all anthropogenic solutions. We need to understand and minimize them. Once started, hardening will eventually result in entombing us, totally eliminating the natural beauty and functionality of the North Shore that we enjoy. Perhaps there are softer forms of resilience that will allow preservation of natural processes yet significantly reduce the anticipated severe erosion from wind, rain, accelerated sea level rise and climate change. We need to find those techniques and implement them consistently.

In the meantime, there are zoning measures that can be practiced that will reduce erosion of these steep coastal faces — establish respectable setbacks, reduce or eliminate clearing, minimize variances resulting in overbuilding and consider downstream impacts of stabilization measures.

Long Island’s low-lying South Shore is at risk to the negative impacts of storm surge, sea level rise and climate change and much attention is being given to it. The North Shore, while seemingly elevated from these impacts, is not. Because its steep coast consists of unconsolidated sediments, it will experience extensive erosion. We need to understand, plan for and implement regional adaptive measures to reduce potential adverse effects to assure resilience of this vulnerable coastal environment.

R. Lawrence Swanson is the interim dean and associate dean of the Stony Brook University School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences.

Malcolm J. Bowman and R. Lawrence Swanson will receive The Robert Cushman Memorial Award at the TVHS award dinner. Photo by Heidi Sutton

On Wednesday, March 22, the Three Village Historical Society will host its 40th Annual Awards Dinner honoring volunteers and area residents who have made outstanding contributions to the Society and the local community.

Among the honorees will be R. Lawrence Swanson and Malcolm J. Bowman, who will receive The Robert Cushman Murphy Memorial Award in recognition of significant contribution to the preservation and conservation of our natural environment. Both are on the faculty of the Marine Science Department at Stony Brook University and are being recognized for their recently published book “Between Stony Brook Harbor Tides —The Natural History of a Long Island Pocket Bay.” This distinguished award has only been given eight times since 1987.

Carlton “Hub” Edwards will receive the  Kate Wheeler Strong Memorial Award  in recognition of significant contribution toward the fostering of interest in local history. Edwards is a lifelong resident of the Three Villages and his knowledge of the area is something to treasure, as are the memories he shares of his 85 years lived here and his work on the Three Village Society’s Chicken Hill, A Community Lost to Time exhibit.

Millie Mastrion a longtime member, past trustee and volunteer will receive The Maggie Gillie Memorial Award for contributions by a member of the society in recognition of overall dedicated service, and for significant contributions furthering the goals of the society.

From left, Katherine Johnson, Kristin Moller and Sean Mullen will be honored at the TVHS awards dinner. Photo courtesy of TVHS

A deep interest in history led Sean Mullen to the Three Village Historical Society.  Mullen has applied his knowledge by volunteering at the society’s archives while pursuing his degree in history at SUNY Stony Brook.  He has been working with the society’s collections, especially those relating to the Revolutionary era and the Culper Spy Ring. For that, Mullen will receive the Gayle Becher Memorial Award in recognition of volunteer efforts to help the society by performing those necessary tasks that facilitate its efficient operation. This award honors volunteers whose work consists of loyal support repeated on a regular basis.

Katherine Johnson and Kristin Moller, both students at Ward Melville High School, are this year’s honorees for the Sherman Mills Young Historian Award, a prestigious award presented for contributions to the society by a young person.  Kristen and Katherine have both volunteered many hours to society exhibits and events.

Three community award certificates will be handed out this year. The first, for enhancing or restoring a building used as a commercial structure in a way that contributes to the historic beauty of the area will be awarded to Michael and Anthony Butera of ATM Butera Mason Contractors & Landscaping for the reconstruction of the 1892 chimney on the Emma Clark Library. The second, for house restoration or renovation and ongoing maintenance and preservation in keeping with the original architectural integrity, will be awarded to John and Christine Negus for their home at 34 Old Post Road. The third award, for ornamental plantings or landscaping that enhances the beauty of the Three Village area, will be awarded to John and Randy Prinzivalli of 6 Old Field Road in Setauket.

The Awards Dinner will be held from 6 to 9 p.m. at the Old Field Club located at 86 West Meadow Road in East Setauket. A three-course dinner, which will include cheese/fruit/crudité, North Fork Salad, choice of entree (sliced grilled sirloin steak, herb-crusted salmon or grilled vegetable lasagna) and dessert, will be served. There will be a cash bar and music will be provided by Dylan Maggio, Alex Attard and Hugh Ferguson from Ward Melville High School Jazz Band under the direction of Jason Chapman. Tickets are $65 per person, $55 members. To order, visit www.tvhs.org or call 631-751-3730.