Arts & Entertainment

Orange Bundt Cake with Candied Orange Peel Glaze

By Barbara Beltrami

I was eating an orange the other day and got to thinking about the February some years ago when we received a crate of oranges as a gift. There was no way we could consume them all, and after I had given half of them away, I still had more oranges than we could eat. It was a bitter cold winter like this one, and as an antidote to cabin fever I did what I always do. I started cooking and concocting.

One morning it was freshly squeezed orange juice with sliced bananas; one night it was orange, fennel, radicchio and red onion salad. Another day it was orange pound cake drizzled with the orange syrup left over from making candied orange peel from all the oranges we had eaten. And there was also orange marmalade.

As it turned out, shortly thereafter, we flew south to visit the same people who had sent us the oranges. And guess what I took with me — a gift bag of bottled orange syrup, candied orange peel, a couple of jars of marmalade and an orange bundt cake.   Neither cooks nor bakers themselves, they had always thought of an orange as something you peeled and ate or squeezed and drank. Period. So they were delighted with  my fancy orange by-products.

Now that’s regifting.

Orange Bundt Cake with Candied Orange Peel Glaze

Orange Bundt Cake with Candied Orange Peel Glaze

YIELD: Makes 12 servings.

INGREDIENTS:

2 sticks unsalted butter at room temperature

2 cups sugar

5 large eggs

3 cups flour

1 tablespoon baking powder

½ teaspoon salt

¾ cup orange juice

½ cup very finely minced candied orange peel or grated zest of one orange

¼ cup unsalted butter, melted

1 cup confectioners’ sugar

DIRECTIONS:

Preheat oven to 350 F. Grease a 10-inch bundt or tube cake pan. In a large bowl beat together the butter and sugar until light and fluffy; add the eggs one at a time being sure to incorporate them thoroughly in mixture. In a medium bowl sift together the flour, baking powder and salt; alternating with the orange juice, gradually beat flour mixture into butter mixture. Stir in half the candied orange peel, then pour batter into prepared pan. Bake about 55 minutes, until a cake tester inserted in center comes out clean. Remove from oven and let cool on rack about 10 minutes.

Carefully invert pan onto serving plate. While cake is cooling, make the glaze by combining the melted butter, confectioners’ sugar and remaining half of candied orange peel; stirring frequently heat over boiling water. While cake is still warm, using a two-tined meat fork, poke holes all over top of cake; then pour on glaze and allow it to run down sides of cake and seep into top. Serve warm, at room temperature or freeze for later use. Serve with whipped cream, vanilla ice cream or orange sorbet.

Candied Orange Peel

Candied Orange Peel

YIELD: Makes four to five cups

INGREDIENTS:

4 large oranges or 6 small or medium

3 cups water

4 cups sugar

DIRECTIONS:

Peel oranges and remove as much of pith as possible. Reserve the fruit of the oranges for another use. Cut peel into quarter-inch julienned strips. Cook in large pot of boiling water for 15 minutes. Drain, rinse and drain again. Meanwhile, combine 3 cups of the sugar with 3 cups water; stir and bring to a gentle boil. Add the orange peel, bring back to a boil, then reduce heat and simmer, stirring occasionally, until just tender, for 30 to 40 minutes.

With a slotted spoon remove peel from syrup and spread on cookie sheet. Reserve syrup for another use. Toss peel with remaining cup of sugar, spread out on aluminum foil or waxed paper and set aside to dry for 2 to 3 days, until slightly crunchy. Toss to expose all sides of strips to air once or twice a day. When sufficiently hardened, store in an airtight container. Serve with tea and cookies or as garnish or topping for desserts.

Photo courtesy of Kent Animal Shelter

MEET AMBER!

Photo courtesy of Kent Animal Shelter

This week’s shelter pet is Amber, a 4-year-old Shepherd mix who came to Kent Animal Shelter from Texas with two of her pups. Her pups have since found their forever homes — now it’s Amber’s turn!  Amber is a super sweet girl and loves all the attention she can get. She’s great with kids and loves belly rubs too! Amber also loves to eat, so pick up a bag of treats and come on down to visit her. She comes spayed, microchipped and is up to date on all her vaccines.

Open seven days a week from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m., Kent Animal Shelter is located at 2259 River Road in Calverton. For more information on Amber and other adoptable pets at Kent, visit www.kentanimalshelter.com or call 631-727-5731.

By Fr. Francis Pizzarelli

Over the last number of weeks we have been reminded of the seriousness of the opioid epidemic that is plaguing our country and our larger community. There have been a number of op-ed pieces in a number of respectable newspapers speaking to this issue. Our president in his State of the Union address underscored how serious this health issue is and promised all Americans that his administration is working feverishly to end this lethal health epidemic.

In Blue Point, the St. Ursula Center convent on Middle Road is for sale. A profit-making business wanted to purchase this property and use it as a residential rehab for women. After much back and forth and intense push back from the local community this business has withdrawn its offer.

Let’s be clear, we are in desperate need for residential treatment beds for people battling the heroin epidemic. We especially need more beds for women. The Ursula Center would have been ideal.

However, some rather important facts and figures were never publicly addressed that are critical to understanding the complexity of this health issue and how it must be treated if we hope to be effective supporting people who are afflicted with this addiction. There is compelling research and evidence-based treatment research that is important to review and understand. We need long-term residential treatment beds for those battling the opioid epidemic. Very few recovering opioid addicts sustain recovery after only 30 days in residential treatment.

If the truth be told, most insurance companies will not pay for any kind of residential rehab until the consumer fails at outpatient treatment. The recidivism rate for heroin addicts in outpatient treatment is off the page. People are trying outpatient treatment first because they have no choice and they are failing, they are dying — that is unconscionable.

Our insurance companies should be held accountable for every unnecessary death caused by the industry’s unwillingness to do its job. For the record most insurance companies, if they agreed to pay for residential care, only end up paying for 11 days. They decide that after 11 days it’s not a medical necessity! The average hard-core addict struggling to survive takes at least 30 to 45 days to truly detox their bodies from all the toxins with which they have been infected.

It is very disturbing that those who lead us within our political bureaucracy are unwilling to take on the insurance companies for making life-and-death decisions regarding people who battle addiction. Taking a person into residential treatment with the promise of at least 28 days and then discharging them at day 11 because the insurance company won’t pay is a disgrace and a scandal.

The Blue Point community has every right to be concerned. We do not need any more short-term residential programs that do not honor their commitments. If we’re addressing the opioid epidemic, we need long-term residential treatment programs that work on transitioning the recovering person back into the real world, hopefully with the skills to survive a drug-infested world.

The governor of our state has promised millions of dollars for residential treatment. That promise was made over a year ago. Since that promise, not one dollar has been released for residential long-term treatment.

This health crisis is getting worse by the day, not better! As a community, we need to demand the distribution of the money promised to those who are trained to work in the area of residential treatment for addiction so we can begin to support recovering addicts and their families. People are petrified and they should be; this epidemic is out of control. Change and transformation can happen and it will with the right support.

As someone who has lived and still lives with struggling drug addicts, I watch them struggle to recover. I see their pain every day but I also see the miracle of change and transformation. Addicts do recover and reclaim their lives and enrich our communities. Hope must become the anthem of our souls!

Fr. Pizzarelli, SMM, LCSW-R, ACSW, DCSW, is the director of Hope House Ministries in Port Jefferson.

Daniel Mockler in his office at Stony Brook University. Photo from SBU

By Daniel Dunaief

At first, people didn’t believe it. Now, it seems, they are eager to learn more.

Working with a talented team that included postdoctoral researchers, doctoral students and doctors, Kenneth Shroyer, the chairman of the Department of Pathology at Stony Brook University, noticed something odd about a protein that scientists thought played a supporting role, but that, as it turns out, may be much more of a villain in the cancer story.

Known as keratin 17, this protein was thought to act as a tent pole, providing structural support. That, however, isn’t the only thing it can do. The co-director of Shroyer’s lab, Luisa Escobar-Hoyos, found that this protein was prevalent in some types of cancers. What’s more, the protein seemed to be in higher concentration in a more aggressive form of the disease.

Now, working with Long Island native Daniel Mockler, a clinical assistant professor in the Department of Pathology, Shroyer and his team discovered that the presence of this particular protein has prognostic value for endocervical glandular neoplasia, suggesting the likely course of the disease.

Published in the American Journal of Clinical Pathology, the article by Mockler and his team in the Sept. 1, 2017, issue attracted the attention of pathologists around the world. It ranked as the third highest read article in the final month of 2017, according to Medscape. It was behind two other papers that were review articles, which made it the most read primary research report in pathology in December.

The response “did exceed my expectations,” Mockler stated in an email. “I would have thought [Shroyer’s earlier] paper showing that k17 can function in gene regulation would have been more popular. But I guess this [new paper] illustrates that topics that have a possible direct impact on practicing surgical pathologists will draw a lot of attention.”

To be sure, while the recent study is an early indication of the potential predictive value of this protein, there may be some mitigating factors that could affect its clinical applicability.

“It’s premature to know what the clinical utility of this marker will be,” Shroyer said. “To determine that would require a large-scale prospective clinical trial” that would involve other patient populations and other laboratories.

Still, depending on the outcome of research currently underway in Shroyer’s lab, the protein may offer a way of determining the necessary therapy for patients with the same diagnosis.

Doctors don’t want to give patients with milder version of the disease high levels of chemotherapy, which would cause uncomfortable side effects. At the same time, they want to be as aggressive as possible in treating patients whose cancers are likely a more significant threat.

“The goal of having an excellent prognostic biomarker … is to avoid over and under treatment of patients,” suggested Mockler, who is also an attending pathologist at SBU and Stony Brook Southampton.

Shroyer was delighted with the efforts of the team that put together this well-read research. “As is true of all our clinical faculty, I want to give them every opportunity to take advantage of their ability to collaborate with research faculty in our department and throughout the cancer center and the school of medicine to advance their scholarly careers and academic productivity,” he said.

Mockler’s success and the visibility of this paper is “an excellent example of how someone with a busy clinical practice can also have a major impact on translational research,” Shroyer added.

Mockler appreciated the support and work of Escobar-Hoyos, who had conducted her doctoral research in Shroyer’s lab. She has “been the main driving force, along with [Shroyer] in the initial discovery of k17 including its prognostic implications as well as its possible function in regulating gene expression,” he said.

Mockler said he spends about 80 percent of his time on patient care, with the remaining efforts divided between research and academic pursuits. His first priority is providing “excellent patient care.”

Working with Shroyer and Escobar-Hoyos, Mockler explained that they have started looking at k17 in organ systems including the esophagus, pancreas and bladder. “We are currently looking at k17 from a diagnostic point of view in regards to bladder cancer,” he said. “Discoveries that impact the daily signout of surgical pathologists by allowing us to make better and more consistent diagnoses interests me very much.”

A resident of Kings Park, Mockler, who grew up in Hicksville, lives with his fiancée Danielle Kurkowski, who is a medical technologist of flow cytometry research and development at ICON Central Laboratories in Farmingdale.

Daniel Mockler on a recent snowboarding trip to Aspen. Photo from Daniel Mockler

Outside of his work in medicine, Mockler is an avid snowboard enthusiast. He tries to get in as many trips as possible during the winter, including a vacation a few weeks ago to the Austrian Alps. A more typical trip, however, is to western mountains or to Vermont, including Killington, Okemo and Stratton.

“To blow off steam and relax, nothing is better than being on a snow-covered mountain,” he said.

Mockler is pleased with the developments in the department. He has seen the “research goals of the department change quite significantly,” adding that Shroyer has “done a tremendous amount of recruiting.”

Mockler suggests to residents that it’s “good to get involved. I always tell them that [Shroyer] has a pretty active research lab and he likes it when residents get involved.”

As for his work on k17, Mockler is pleased that he’s been able to contribute to the ongoing efforts. Shroyer “has been doing this a while and I have seen the excitement and energy he has put into k17,” he explained, “so I know that we are onto something big.”

And so, apparently, do readers of pathology journals.

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Artist Jennifer Bardram in front of her painting. Photo by Heidi Sutton

By Heidi Sutton

The Port Jefferson Ferry House has a fitting new addition. Staff member and Port Jefferson artist Jennifer Bardram was recently commissioned by The Bridgeport  & Port Jefferson Steamboat Company to create a large-scale painting to adorn the wall of the ferry house, and the result is impressive indeed. The colorful mural depicts the P.T. Barnum Ferry sailing in choppy waters on the Long Island Sound on a beautiful summer day with the Port Jefferson ferry terminal on the left and the Bridgeport ferry terminal on the right.

The artist, who prefers to paint in oils but chose acrylic due to the faster drying time, created the  artwork in a realistic Americana folklore style reminiscent of famed artist Charles Wysocki. The project took approximately 120 hours over several months to complete. “I put a lot of time and heart into it and I hope I conveyed it as best as I could,” she said.

While she’s not painting, Bardram is a 15-year employee for the Bridgeport & Port Jefferson Steamboat Company and serves as supervisor and ticket agent. “How lucky are we that we have someone who is a long-term employee that can do something like this,” said Carol Koutrakos, HR/Claims Manager for the ferry. “We are very proud of her.” To see more of Bardram’s artwork, visit www.jenniferbardram.com.

When a person dies without a will, the law determines who the heirs of the estate are. Stock photo

By Linda M. Toga, Esq.

Linda Toga

THE FACTS: After my mother’s death I was approached by a man I will refer to as Joe who claims that my mother was his biological mother as well. According to Joe, before she and my father married, my mother gave birth to Joe and immediately put him up for adoption. Although Joe admits that my mother rejected his attempts to develop a relationship with her during her lifetime, Joe now claims that since my mother died without a will, he is entitled to a share of my mother’s estate.

THE QUESTION: Is Joe correct? Will my siblings and I have to share our inheritance with him?

THE ANSWER: Fortunately for you, Joe is wrong.

HOW IT WORKS: Generally a child who is adopted out does not have the right to an inheritance from the estate of his birth mother. The order of adoption generally relieves the birth parents of all parental duties and of all responsibilities for the adopted child. At the same time, the order extinguishes all parental rights of the birth parent to the estate of a child who has been adopted, including the right to serve as administrator of that child’s estate and the right to inherit under the intestacy statutes.

Although Joe seems to be relying upon the fact that your mother died without a will and, therefore, did not explicitly disinherit him, his reliance is unwarranted. That is because the New York State intestacy statute and the domestic relations law govern how your mother’s estate should be distributed.

While the child of a decedent is generally entitled to a share of his parent’s estate if the parent dies without a will [Estates, Powers and Trusts Law §4-1.1 (a)(1) and (3)], the rights of an adopted child in the estate of a birth parent are governed by subsection (d) of the statute. It provides that the Domestic Relations Law, specifically Domestic Relations Law §117, controls.

Domestic Relations Law §117 (1)(a) and (b) provide that an order of adoption relieves the birth parent of all parental duties and responsibilities and extinguishes any rights the parent would otherwise have over the adoptive child’s property or estate. At the same time, the order terminates any rights of the adoptive child to an inheritance from the birth parent.

Although there are some exceptions to these laws, the logic behind terminating inheritance rights is to prevent people in Joe’s position from enjoying a windfall by inheriting from both his birth and adoptive parents and to prevent a birth mother from receiving an inheritance from a child that she did not support during her lifetime.

Under the circumstances, the only way Joe could inherit from your mother’s estate would be if she chose to name him as a beneficiary in a will or a trust or on a beneficiary designation form. If Joe decides to pursue a claim against your mother’s estate, you should be able to defeat the claim by providing the court with evidence that Joe was legally adopted as a child.

It would be wise to retain an attorney experienced in estate administration to assist you with this matter.

Linda M. Toga provides personalized service and peace of mind to her clients in the areas of elder law, estate administration and estate planning, real estate, marital agreements and litigation. Visit her website at www.lmtogalaw.com or call 631-444-5605 to schedule a free consultation.

Stock photo

By Matthew Kearns, DVM

I recently caught a cold from my son, Matty, and it really knocked me on my butt. Fever followed by a terrible cough that has lasted at least two weeks. The ironic part  of the story is that about a week and a half into my cold, each one of my three cats developed a cough and started sneezing. My cats do not go outside and I wondered if I could give a cold to my cats.

After some investigation I couldn’t believe what I found. There are documented cases of cats with upper respiratory syndromes, and these same cats tested positive for the human H1N1 influenza virus.

I graduated veterinary school about 20 years ago, and all of the focus was on zoonotic diseases (diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans and not the other way around) or diseases that could affect herd health (say a cow that develops a respiratory disease that is either fatal or affects productivity). Through the years since I graduated, there have been smaller studies evaluating what infections we humans can give our pets. Now, there is definitive evidence that the human H1N1 influenza virus can be passed to cats. 

Sneezing, the sniffles, lethargy and coughing may be signs that your cat has the flu. Stock photo

The human-to-cat transmission of the flu is not the first time that examples of cross-species contamination has taken place. I also found examples of experimental infection of pigs with the H1N2 human influenza virus. Not only did these pigs show symptoms of the flu about four days after infection, but they also passed the disease along to uninfected pigs. More recently, the canine influenza virus outbreaks that keep making the news appear to be a mutation of an H3N8 equine influenza virus. What in the name of Sam Hill is going on?

It seems that the problem with these influenza viruses is their ability to mutate, or change their genetic sequencing. One of the better examples recently (2009) was a human outbreak in the United States where the influenza virus responsible included genetic material from North American swine influenza, North American avian influenza, human influenza and a swine influenza typically found in Asia. That means this particular strain of flu virus was able to incorporate genetic material from three different species. UGH!!!!!

The most important question is this: How do we prevent this infection in our feline family members? The unfortunate dilemma with this constant mutation is there is no effective influenza virus vaccine for cats at this time. Therefore, it is recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to avoid contact with your cat until at least the fever breaks. I can tell you from personal experience this is easier said than done.

My cats sleep with me, follow me around and (they’re a bit naughty) even jump on the kitchen table to see what I’m eating. The good news is that if your cat does break out with symptoms it is restricted to an upper respiratory infection.

Symptoms include lethargy, coughing, sneezing and a purulent (snotty green) discharge. If you do see a greenish discharge from the eyes or nose, antibiotics may be indicated due to a secondary bacterial infection. A much lower percentage of cats progress to a lower respiratory infection (even pneumonia). This can be quite serious and possibly fatal because it is viral and antibiotics are ineffective unless there is a secondary bacterial component.

Until a feline influenza vaccine is developed, my advice is that when you break out with the flu, good general hygiene is best even at home. If you cough or sneeze, cough or sneeze into your arm rather than cover you mouth with your hands. Make sure to regularly wash your hands or carry around the waterless hand sanitizer.

Lastly, if your cat develops signs, contact your veterinarian for advice or possibly an appointment. Good luck my fellow pet lovers.

Dr. Kearns practices veterinary medicine from his Port Jefferson office and is pictured with his son Matthew and his dog Jasmine.

From left, Ruth Hussey, Jimmy Stewart, Cary Grant and Katharine Hepburn in a scene from ‘The Philadelphia Story’. Photo courtesy of Fathom Events

Fathom Events, Turner Classic Movies and Warner Bros. Entertainment are bringing the timeless classic “The Philadelphia Story” to select cinemas nationwide for a special two-day event on Sunday, Feb. 18 and Wednesday, Feb. 21 as part of the TCM Big Screen Classic Series.

Winner of two Academy Awards including best writing, screenplay (Donald Ogden Stewart) and best actor (Jimmy Stewart), “The Philadelphia Story” is a  1940 romantic comedy directed by George Cukor and starring Cary Grant, Katharine Hepburn, Stewart and Ruth Hussey that was adapted from Philip Barry’s Broadway hit play of the same name.

Katharine Hepburn and Jimmy Stewart in a scene from the film. Photo courtesy of Fathom Events

In one of her most famous roles, Hepburn plays Tracy Lord, the daughter of a well-to-do Pennsylvania family. On the eve of her wedding, her blue-blood ex-husband, C.K. Dexter Haven (Grant), returns. C.K. discovered that a national tabloid plans to do an exposé on Tracy’s philandering father and has agreed to smuggle a reporter (Stewart) into her wedding if the magazine kills the story on the elder Lord. But C.K. never expects that the woman he still loves will suddenly fall for the undercover reporter. Now, before the evening is over, Tracy will be forced to take an unflinching look at herself and to realize which of these three men she truly loves.

Hepburn won a 1940 New York Film Critics Circle Award for her performance, and the film was named one of the 10 best of the year by Film Daily. Adapted in 1956 as the MGM musical “High Society,” starring Bing Crosby, Grace Kelly, Frank Sinatra, Celeste Holm, in 1995 “The Philadelphia Story” was deemed “culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant” by the Library of Congress and was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry.

The two-day event will also feature an exclusive commentary from TCM host Ben Mankiewicz who will give insight into this classic film.

Participating movie theaters in our neck of the woods include AMC Loews Stony Brook 17, 2196 Nesconset Highway, Stony Brook (at 2 and 7 p.m. on both days); Farmingdale Multiplex Cinemas, 1001 Broadhollow Road, Farmingdale (on Feb. 18 at 2 p.m. and Feb. 21 at 7 p.m.); and Island 16 Cinema de Lux, 185 Morris Ave., Holtsville (on Feb. 18 at 2 p.m. and Feb. 21 at 7 p.m.).

To purchase your ticket in advance, visit www.fathomevents.com.

According to a recent study, excessive dietary iron intake may increase the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Stock photo
Too much iron can damage the body

By David Dunaief, M.D.

Dr. David Dunaief

Iron is contained in most of the foods that we eat. It is needed for proper functioning of the body and plays an integral role in such processes as DNA synthesis and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, which provides energy for cells (1). It is very important to maintain iron homeostasis, or balance.

When we think of iron, we associate it with reducing fatigue and garnering energy. In fact, many of us think of the ironman triathlons — endurance and strength come to mind. If it’s good for us, then the more we get the better. Right? It depends on the circumstances. But for many of us, this presumption is not grounded in reality.

Iron in excess amounts is dangerous. It may contribute to a host of diseases, including diabetes, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), glaucoma, Parkinson’s disease and even heart disease. These diseases are perpetuated because when we have excess iron it may cause reactive oxygen species, or free radicals, which cause breakdown of DNA and tissues, ironically, the very things that iron homeostasis tends to preserve (2).

So what helps us differentiate between getting enough iron and iron overload? It is a good question and depends on the type of iron we ingest. There are two main types: heme iron and nonheme iron. Dietary heme, or blood, iron primarily comes from red meat and is easily absorbed into the gut. Dietary nonheme iron comes from other sources, such as plants and fortified foods, which are much more difficult sources to absorb. By focusing on the latter source of dietary iron, you may maintain homeostasis, since the gut tends to absorb 1 to 2 mg of iron but also excretes 1 to 2 mg of iron through urine, feces and perspiration.

Not only does it matter what type of iron we consume but also the population that ingests the iron. Age and gender are critical factors. Let me explain. Women of reproductive age, patients who are anemic and children may require more iron. However, iron overload is more likely to occur in men and postmenopausal women because they cannot easily rid the body of excess iron.

Let’s investigate some of the research that shows the effects of iron overload on different chronic diseases.

Impact on diabetes

In a meta-analysis (a group of 16 studies), results showed that both dietary heme iron and elevated iron storage (ferritin) may increase the risk of type 2 diabetes (3). When these ferritin levels were high, the risk of diabetes increased 66 to 129 percent. With heme iron, the group with the highest levels had a 39 percent increased risk of developing diabetes. There were over 45,000 patients in this analysis. You can easily measure ferritin with a simple blood test. Also these levels are modifiable through blood donation and avoidance of heme iron, thus reducing the risk of iron overload.

Diabetic retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy is a complication of diabetes that occurs when glucose, or sugar, levels are not tightly controlled. It affects the retina, or the back of the eye. Iron excess and its free radicals can have detrimental effects on the retina (4). This is potentially caused by oxidative stress resulting in retinal tissue damage (5).

So how does iron relate to uncontrolled glucose levels? In vitro studies (preliminary lab studies) suggest that high glucose levels may perpetuate the breakdown of heme particles and subsequently raise the level of iron in the eye (6). In fact, those with diabetic retinopathy tend to have iron levels that are 150 percent greater than those without the disease (7). Diets that are plant based and, therefore, nutrient dense are some of the most effective ways to control glucose levels and avoid diabetic retinopathy.

Age-related macular degeneration

Continuing with the theme of retinal damage, excessive dietary iron intake may increase the risk of AMD according to the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (8). AMD is the number one cause of blindness for people 65 and older. People who consumed the most iron from red meat increased their risk of early AMD by 47 percent. However, due to the low incidence of advanced AMD among study participants, the results for this stage were indeterminate.

I have been frequently asked if unprocessed red meat is better than processed meat. Well, this study showed that both types of red meat were associated with an increased risk. This was a large study with over 5,000 participants ranging in age from 58 to 69.

Cardiovascular disease

Though we have made considerable headway in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease and even deaths from these diseases, there are a number of modifiable risks that need to be addressed. One of these is iron overload. In the Japan Collaborative Cohort, results showed that men who had the highest amount of dietary iron were at a 43 percent increased risk of stroke death, compared to those who ate the least amounts (9). And overall increased risk of cardiovascular disease death, which includes both heart disease and stroke, was increased by 27 percent in men who consumed the most dietary iron. There were over 23,000 Japanese men who were between the ages of 40 to 79 that were involved in this study.

In conclusion, we should focus on avoiding heme iron, especially for men and postmenopausal women. Too much iron creates a plethora of free radicals that damage the body. Therefore, the best way to circumvent the increased risk of chronic diseases with iron overload is prevention. Significantly decreasing red meat consumption and donating blood on a quarterly basis, assuming that one is not anemic, may be the most effective strategies for not falling into the trap of iron overload.

References:

(1) Proc  Natl  Acad  Sci USA. 1997;94:10919-10924. (2) Clin Haematol. 1985;14(1):129. (3) PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e41641. (4) Methods Enzymol. 1990;186:1-85. (5) Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2008;9(4):315-327. (6) Biophys Chem. 2003;105:743-755. (7) Indian J Ophthalmol. 2004;52:145-148. (8) Am J Epidemiol. 2009;169(7):867-876. (9) J Epidemiol. 2012;22(6):484-493. Epub 2012 Sept 15.

Dr. Dunaief is a speaker, author and local lifestyle medicine physician focusing on the integration of medicine, nutrition, fitness and stress management. For further information, visit www.medicalcompassmd.com or consult your personal physician.

Matthew Lerner, far right, with his lab group at Stony Brook University. Photo from Matthew Lerner

By Daniel Dunaief

An actor draws in members of an audience, encouraging them to understand, appreciate and perhaps even become sympathetic to a world created on a stage. The process of creating scenes for the actor, however, can also change his or her world off the stage.

A team of scientists from Vanderbilt University, University of Alabama at Tuscaloosa and Stony Brook University recently received $3 million in funding from the National Institutes of Mental Health for four years to study how participation in a theater production can help people with autism spectrum disorders.

Matthew Lerner. Photo by Graham Chedd from the Alan Alda Center for Communicating Science

“Theater is a venue for learning and gaining skills,” said Matthew Lerner, an assistant professor of psychology, psychiatry and pediatrics at the Department of Psychology at SBU who is leading the Long Island part of a study that will involve about 240 participants from age 10 through 16. “The process of putting on a play with others and being able to successfully produce and perform that has key benefits to learn and practice.”

Called SENSE Theatre (for Social Emotional NeuroScience Endocrinology), the shows were created by the project leader, Blythe Corbett, an associate professor of psychiatry and behavioral sciences and psychology and investigator at Vanderbilt Kennedy Center, who herself performed in stage plays before pursuing her scientific career.

Corbett writes the plays, which have themes she believes are important not only for autism but also for the general public. The topics include acceptance, belonging and diversity and offer a current of core ideas that are “part of having a condition that is unique,” she said. The plays, which typically have about 20 characters, include music and last about 45 minutes.

Tiffany Adams and Jane Goodwin participate in the SENSE Theatre program. Photo by Steve Green, Vanderbilt University

Corbett explained that the experience uses theater as a platform for teaching fundamental areas that could help people with autism spectrum disorders, including reciprocal social communication, flexible thinking and behavior and imagination.

“It also gives [the participants] an opportunity to be exposed to social situations and to engage with others in a safe and supportive environment,” she said. “They can be John today and Henry tomorrow, which allows them to expand their repertoire in a playful, fun way” which, she hopes, might help them assimilate lessons when the program ends.

Corbett has been developing SENSE Theatre for nine years. This specific multisite project will allow her to see how transportable this program is to other locations, where other investigators who have not been involved with this before can employ it with other participants.

The investigators, which include Corbett, Lerner and Susan White at the University of Alabama, will monitor the participants through psychological testing, social interaction and research EEG, or electroencephalography. This is a noninvasive way of monitoring electrical activity in the brain that involves placing electrodes on or below the scalp. The EEG testing takes about 45 minutes.

Participation is free, although members, who go through a screening process, need to contribute to the research program by completing the evaluations.

The theater program has a control study, calling Tackling Teenage Training, in which participants will “address some of the challenges of being a teen,” which include dating and puberty, knowing how to know if somebody likes or doesn’t like you and how to express desires or interests appropriately, Lerner said.

Savannah Bradley participates in the SENSE Theatre program. Photo from Steve Green , Vanderbilt University

Corbett chose to work with Lerner because of considerable overlap in their interests in using performance to provide clinical help for people with autism spectrum disorders. Lerner “has a very strong interest in theater and is able to understand the core approach” to the training and shows as a form of intervention. He is an “engaging, charismatic individual who is extremely hard-working” and is a “really good choice in terms of harnessing his energy and intelligence.”

Indeed, Lerner and Karen Levine, a licensed psychologist and the co-author of “Treatment Planning for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders,” developed a model in 2004 for youths with disabilities to work on social skills called Spotlight, which utilized techniques of theater games and dramatic training. Spotlight is a program of Northeast Arc, a human services organization founded in 1954 and based in Massachusetts.

The Spotlight efforts started with nine students and has expanded to include hundreds of families each year.

In early high school, Lerner met someone who would change his life. He was having dinner with the family of a friend of his younger sister’s when he noticed a boy, Ben, playing on his own in another room. Lerner asked if he could play with Ben, who was 2 at the time and was running a car back and forth across the top of a toy playhouse.

Lerner mirrored what Ben did. “He looked at me curiously and kept doing what he was doing,” Lerner recalled. “I followed him around for over two hours.”

A scene from a performance by SENSE Theatre. Photo by Steve Green, Vanderbilt University

Up to that point in his life, Lerner thought the experience with Ben was “the most fascinating two hours of my life.” He had made a connection in which he “loved the joy and challenge of trying to meet him where he was, rather than behave in a way that was consistent with what the world expected.”

Lerner studied philosophy and music at Wesleyan University. After earning his doctorate at the University of Virginia, where his dissertation explored why youths with autism experience social problems, Lerner worked at the University of Chicago and then moved to SBU in 2013.

A native of Swampscott, Massachusetts, Lerner lives in Port Jefferson with his wife Chelsea Finn, a pediatric nurse practitioner in the Stony Brook Hospital Emergency Room and a nurse practitioner at SV Pediatrics in Patchogue. The couple has a 4-year-old son Everett and a 6-month-old son Sawyer.

Lerner is looking for people who would like to participate in the study. They can reach out to him by phone at 631-632-7857 or by email at lernerlab@stonybrook.edu. The first set of students will begin working in the SENSE Theatre program this spring and summer.

Corbett said the participants aren’t the only ones who benefit from the program.

“The overwhelming sentiment from those who come to see the performance is that it changes their perception of what it means to have autism,” Corbett said. After the show, some of the audience members “ask who are the children with autism.”

Parents of the actors are pleasantly surprised by the things their children are able to do, which exceed their expectations. “In one of our previous studies, parents reported that their stress went down” during the program, she said, “which appeared to be in response to the child participating in intervention.”

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